News of the Institute
A Message from the Executive Director
By Heidi Tremayne (M. EERI, 2004)
It's already been a year and half since I began my role as Executive Director. At this point, I’m pleased to share some areas where we’ve achieved some great success as an organization and as teams of passionate individuals dedicated to our mission of earthquake risk reduction.
I’d be remiss if I didn’t start with the 11NCEE. The conference exceeded our expectations in attendance, quality of technical presentations, and media impact. For this I’m extremely grateful for the support of our incredible organizing committee, proactive staff, and our many active and engaged participants. Thank you all.
During the Board’s strategic alignment activity two years ago, they decided a key priority for EERI is the third tenet of our mission: advocating comprehensive and realistic measures for reducing the harmful effects of earthquakes. With a lot of diligence and persistence (plus some timely opportunities), EERI’s Public Policy and Advocacy Committee (PPA) has achieved extraordinary progress towards this aim, first under Chair Laura Samant (M.EERI,2003), and now under current co-chairs Zahraa Sayied (M.EERI,2011) and Chris Poland (M.EERI,1978), by proactively influencing public policy. Three pieces of legislation are being followed by the PPA and are officially supported by EERI: one at the federal level and two precedent setting California bills that are likely to influence future legislation in states across the nation.
- NEHRP Reauthorization. The newly introduced H.R.6650 by Congressman Dana Rohrabacher (R-CA 48th District), is a companion bill to S.1768 introduced by Senator Dianne Feinstein (D-CA) last fall. These companion bills mean great progress for earthquake risk reduction, as they provide a clear political message that earthquake risk reduction should be a priority for our nation and thereby promote funding levels that are critical for the four key federal agencies (NIST, FEMA, USGS, and NSF) to conduct activities to enhance the nation’s seismic resilience. EERI’s PPA and many of our members have played the important role of providing expert advice and recommendations to make S.1768 as effective as possible during its development by Senator Feinstein. The introduction of both the house and senate bills is a critical step for our collective professions, but the work is not over. Both bills need to get moved out of committee to continue their path towards passage. Please add your own voice to this important legislation by writing to your congressional representatives and expressing your own support. EERI’s official support letter and a template for member use, are posted at our new EERI Legislative Action Center for NEHRP.
- California Assembly Bill 1857 by Assemblymember Adrin Nazarian (D-CA 46th District) is a precedent setting piece of legislation focused on considering the viability of elevating the California Building Code beyond life-safety to a new functional recovery performance standard. As defined in the bill, “functional recovery standard” means “a set of enforceable building code provisions and regulations that provide specific design and construction requirements intended to result in a building for which post-earthquake structural and nonstructural capacity are maintained or can be restored to support the basic intended functions of the building’s pre-earthquake use and occupancy within a maximum acceptable time, where the maximum acceptable time might differ for various uses or occupancies.” EERI has played a proactive role in refining this bill with Assemblymember Nazarian’s staff which has successfully led to the implementation of many changes to the bill content and language that will improve its effectiveness. While some of these improvements were lost during the inevitable process of political compromise, the current legislation provides an incredible opportunity for EERI and other partner organizations to make our case for higher performance code requirements to the many stakeholder groups that are impacted by building code changes. This bill is nearly through its journey to becoming a law, and awaits signature by California Governor Brown. All EERI members in California are encouraged to email Governor Brown this week so that he sees the groundswell of support from our community. EERI’s official support letter, a letter template, and link to the Governor’s email interface, are posted at our new EERI Legislative Action Center for AB1857.
- California Assembly Bill 2681 by Assemblymember Adrin Nazarian is another precedent-setting piece of legislation requiring a statewide inventory of seismically vulnerable buildings. EERI officially supports this legislation because it will help California jurisdictions better understand the seismic vulnerability of their building stock so that they have the knowledge necessary to design, adapt, adopt, and implement unique mitigation programs and activities to meet their specific needs. While this is not the only step needed to mitigate seismic risk in CA from existing buildings, EERI believes that it is an important and worthwhile first step. This bill has passed both houses of the California Legislature, and awaits signature by Governor Brown. All EERI members in California are encouraged to email Governor Brown this week. EERI’s official support letter describing our position, a letter template for use by members, and link to the Governor’s email interface, are posted at our new EERI Legislative Action Center for AB 2681.
EERI’s response to these bills has paved the way for improved coordination and collaboration amongst other organizations and forged new partnerships so that we can advocate more effectively. This legislation has also inspired members of the PPA committee to shape new policy statements and develop action plans to see them through. All EERI members are welcome to join this committee and actively participate.
Looking ahead, my next task is finalizing our 2019 budget for the Board to review during their September meeting. This special time of year provides great opportunities for me to work together with committee and program chairs, staff, and the Board to plan for another year of activity and impact. Ideas and opportunities abound and I am thrilled to help make it possible by allocating our resources to where we need it most. By your membership, you play an important role in making action possible, and through your involvement in EERI activities you can contribute your expertise to our joint goal of reducing earthquake risk. Thus, as renewal time for 2019 approaches, please use your membership as an opportunity to show your support for another bright year ahead.
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Learning from Earthquakes
By: Deborah Weiser (M.EERI,2017), Jeffrey Hunt (M.EERI,2010), Ezra Jampole (M.EERI,2012), and Maurizio Gobbato
A product of the EERI Learning from Earthquakes Program
On September 19, 2017, a 48-km deep, magnitude 7.1 earthquake occurred near Ayutla, Puebla, Mexico. Two weeks after the earthquake, a multidisciplinary team, representing three different companies in partnership with EERI, travelled to Mexico City to study the impacts of the earthquake. The team conducted field reconnaissance from October 3-8, 2017. This report summarizes the team’s observations during their reconnaissance trip. It is part of a growing collection of information that the EERI staff, reconnaissance team, and community have stored on a detailed virtual clearinghouse website (EERI, 2017a, 2017b, and 2017c).
The four core Building Damage Sampling Team (BDST) members led a vigorous mapping of building performance across Mexico City, resulting in invaluable data to inform the understanding of Mexico City's vulnerabilities. The BDST was supported by academic and professional partners, many of whom were local to Mexico City.
The team’s technical objectives for this reconnaissance effort included:
1. Conduct a high-level building performance review,
2. Focus data collection on buildings with close proximity to a nearby ground motion recording station, in order to more closely correlate the observed damage with earthquake shaking intensity,
3. Document building response for a diverse group of buildings,
4. Assess both damaged and undamaged structures, and
5. Collect at least 700 data points.
Click here for the report.
Photo (top): Example of damage state 3: severe damageBack to top >
EERI is pleased to announce that the new Earthquake Spectra Editor will be David Wald (M.EERI,1988) from the U.S. Geological Survey.
EERI's technical journal, Earthquake Spectra, is led by an Editor, who is appointed by the Board to a term of five years. The editor is responsible for managing reviews of all submissions to the journal, other than his/her own. The editor assigns papers to editorial board members, engages as needed to ensure timeliness of reviews, and has ultimate responsibility for all publication decisions. The editor manages the editorial board, making appointments as needed to meet the needs of the journal. Other tasks include managing disputes with authors with the assistance of the ombudsman, managing best paper award nominations, running annual editorial board meetings, selecting cover images and paper order for each issue, and facilitating special issues with guest editors. The editor is supported by a staff editorial support team and the Editorial Board.
The Board is thrilled to announce the appointment of David Wald to this important position. With his vast breadth of knowledge in many seismological topics and strong understanding of the issues surrounding earthquake risk reduction, David should be a great asset to EERI in this new role.
David is a seismologist with the USGS in Golden, Colorado and is on the Geophysics Faculty at the Colorado School of Mines. He earned his Ph.D. in Geophysics from Caltech in 1993. Wald is involved in research, development and operations of several real-time information systems at the USGS National Earthquake Information Center. He led development of and manages “ShakeMap” and “Did You Feel it?”, and is responsible for leading the development of other systems for post-earthquake response and pre-earthquake mitigation, including “ShakeCast” and “PAGER”.
David has served on the EERI Board of Directors from 2014-2016, Earthquake Spectra’s editorial board from 2010-2016, and was EERI’s 2014 Distinguished Lecturer. He has been the Seismological Society of America (SSA) Distinguished Lecturer, Associate Editor of the Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, and served on the Society’s Board of Directors. He was awarded SSA’s 2009 Frank Press Public Service Award, a Department of the Interior Superior Service Award in 2010, and the Meritorious Service Award in 2016. Previously at Caltech, and now at the Colorado School of Mines, Wald has advised scores of post-doctoral, graduate, and undergraduate student research projects. His own scientific interests include a wide variety of earthquake applications including: real-time monitoring, source rupture processes, analysis of ground motion hazards and site effects, macroseismology, modeling earthquake-induced ground failure, citizen-seismology, and estimating economic and human losses.
The outgoing Earthquake Spectra Editor, Professor Jonathan Stewart (M.EERI,1994), UCLA, is ending his term after 5 years of diligent and thoughtful service to the journal. In his tenure, Jon has been very proactive in making improvements to journal processes that have led to a reduced publication queue, and an increase in the journal’s Impact Factor. With his high standard of dedication and care, Jon will be helping to facilitate a smooth transition over the next several months.
New Confined Masonry Publication (Spanish translation): Construyendo Viviendas de Mampostería Confinada de Uno y Dos Pisos
The Construyendo Viviendas de Mampostería Confinada de Uno y Dos Pisos, a new publication from the Confined Masonry Network, is the Spanish translated version of the Construction Guide for Low-Rise Confined Masonry Buildings. The guide addresses the needs of small-scale contractors, technicians, government staff, architects as well as non-governmental organizations involved in post-disaster reconstruction. The guide has been written with users with various professional backgrounds in mind, including a workforce with little formal training. As a consequence, this guide not only shows the practical detailing of confined masonry construction, but also offers a wealth of basic information on good construction practices in general. The guide is now offered in both English and Spanish, and can be downloaded from the EERI Confined Masonry webpage.
The Construction Guide for Low-Rise Confined Masonry Buildings was written by Tom Schacher (M.EERI,2006) and Tim Hart (M.EERI,2009). Spanish translation by Jorge Moreno (M.EERI,2018), EERI post-graduate intern, with contributions by Manuel Alfredo López Menjivar (M.EERI,2017) and Tom Schacher. The guide was produced with funding provided by the Swiss Reinsurance Company (Zurich), the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC), the International Committee of the Red Cross (Geneva) and the Swiss Solidarity fund-raising organization (Geneva). Additional financial support came from Risk Management Solutions (EERI Silver Level Subscribing Member,1997) at the initiation of the project.
As confined masonry is a construction system that has been developed by practitioners in various countries in parallel, there is a lack of uniform rules on how it should be implemented correctly. In 2008 the Confined Masonry Network decided to tackle this issue by compiling a set of common rules from the various existing codes and guidelines on confined masonry and use them to develop a uniform set of guidelines. A first result has been the “Seismic Design Guide for Low-Rise Confined Masonry Buildings”, published by the Network in 2011, which provides prescriptive design provisions for engineers who want to use this construction system.
For more information about confined masonry and the confined masonry network, please visit the EERI Confined Masonry webpage.Back to top >
After an earthquake, hurricane, tornado or other natural hazard, it’s considered a win if no one gets hurt and buildings stay standing. But an even bigger victory is possible: keeping those structures operational. This outcome could become more likely with improved standards and codes for the construction of residential and commercial buildings, according to a new report recently delivered to the U.S. Congress by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).
“Current standards and codes focus on preserving lives by reducing the likelihood of significant building damage or structural collapse from hazards,” said Steven McCabe (M.EERI,1983), director of the NIST-led, multiagency National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) and one of the authors of the new publication. “But they generally don’t address the additional need to preserve quality of life by keeping buildings habitable and functioning as normally as possible, what we call ‘immediate occupancy.’ The goal of our report is to put the nation on track to achieve this performance outcome.”
In 2017, Congress tasked NIST to define what it would take to achieve immediate occupancy performance codes and standards for all buildings in all types of natural hazards, specifically in terms of fundamental research needs, possible technological applications based on that research and key strategies that could be used to implement any resulting regulations.
The result of that effort is the new NIST report, Research Needs to Support Immediate Occupancy Building Performance Objective Following Natural Hazard Events (NIST Special Publication 1224). The publication identifies a large portfolio of research and implementation activities that target enhanced performance objectives for residential and commercial buildings.
“Our report outlines the steps that could be taken for a big raise of the bar—perhaps the biggest change in building standards and codes in 50 years—but one we believe is possible,” McCabe said.
The facility, headquartered at the University of Washington, has a mission to provide investigators with equipment, software, and support services needed to collect, process, and analyze perishable data from natural hazard events. The facility is directed by Joe Wartman (M.EERI,2002), professor of geologic hazards in the College of Civil & Environmental Engineering at the UW.
“After two years of site planning, equipment commissioning, and user training, the RAPID facility is now beginning to support reconnaissance field missions. Our state-of-the-art instrumentation portfolio will enable investigators to conduct next-generation natural hazards and disaster research, with the ultimate goal of reducing the adverse impacts of these hazards and to improving community resilience,” Wartman said.
The RAPID offers an extensive equipment portfolio for research in natural hazards, such as earthquakes, hurricanes, tsunamis and tornados. The equipment is available for the engineering, geoscience and social science communities.
“Our equipment portfolio is unique in our field, and we hope it will open new research avenues,” said Jeff Berman (M.EERI,2000), operations director for the RAPID facility. “We have already had tremendous interest in our facility, with several projects planning to deploy the equipment this year, including follow-up investigations for last year’s hurricanes, imaging shake table experiments in collaboration with E-Defense in Japan, and investigating rock slopes in Alaska. The RAPID aims to accommodate all requests, so if you are interested in using our equipment we encourage you to contact us.”
Abstract submission deadline: September 15, 2018
Submit an abstract online (250 to 450 words)
The 2nd International Conference on Natural Hazards & Infrastructure (ICONHIC2019) will be held on June 23-26, 2019 in Chania, Greece. New speakers have recently been announced including EERI Past-President Mary Comerio (M.EERI,1988) and Director Judith Mitrani-Reiser (M.EERI,2001). For more information please visit the conference website.
12CCEE Abstract submission deadline: September 15, 2018
12CCEE Registration opens: September 15, 2018
The Canadian Association for Earthquake Engineering (CAEE) is proud to announce the 12th Canadian Conference on Earthquake Engineering that will be held in Quebec City, June 17-20, 2019. The conference theme is "Improving Seismic Infrastructure Performance and Community Resilience." You are invited to submit abstracts online until September 15, 2018. For more information, please visit the conference website.
The 2019 PEER Annual Meeting will be held on the UCLA campus in commemoration of the 25th Anniversary of the Northridge Earthquake. Planning is underway and details will be released soon. For more information, please visit the PEER website.
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The Western States Seismic Policy Council (WSSPC) is currently seeking qualified applicants to fill the position of Executive Director.
WSSPC is a federally funded nonprofit consortium comprising 13 states, 3 U.S. territories 1 Canadian territory and 1 Canadian province. It seeks to promote regional cooperation and interaction between members and the public in the formation of, and advocacy for, seismic policy.
The Executive Director is the key management leader of WSSPC. The Executive Director is responsible for overseeing the administration, programs and strategic plan of the organization. Other key duties include grant writing, conference planning, and public outreach. The position reports directly to the Board of Directors.
To see the full job description, with detailed responsibilities and professional qualifications, please click here.
Deadline for application is October 15, 2018, and interviews will be conducted November 15-16, 2018 in Sacramento, California.
To apply, please provide a letter of interest and resume to WSSPC, 801 K Street, Suite 1236, Sacramento, CA 95814.
MHP Inc., Structural Engineers invites EERI members to apply for two immediate openings on our growing team. Our exciting work, generous compensation packages, collaborative culture and location in one of Southern California’s most affordable beach cities makes MHP a top choice for engineers seeking career growth opportunities.
Position Requirements: 2 years of experience minimum (10 years max) in structural design projects ranging from equipment anchorage to new design and seismic retrofit of multi-story buildings.
Preferred Qualifications: P.E. and/or S.E. license; strong 3-D computer modeling skills using SAP and ETABS; working knowledge and experience using ASCE 41 performance-based code; OSHPD and DSA experience; familiarity with Revit.
Position Requirements: M.S. or Ph.D. in structural engineering; 3 years of experience minimum (10 years’ max) in linear and non-linear 3-D computer modeling of buildings; ability to complete non-linear pushover and time-history modeling using ASCE 41 performance-based codes.
Preferred Qualifications: Solid background in structural design and seismic retrofit of commercial buildings; excellent working knowledge of SAP and ETABS software; experience with viscous dampers and BRBFs; OSHPD and DSA experience; PE and/or SE license.
The Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at UNR invites applications for up to two assistant professors in the area of structural engineering for extreme events. These full-time, tenure-track positions include teaching, research, and service responsibilities. The structural and earthquake engineering program within the Department is one of the university’s premier research programs with nine academic faculty, two research faculty and approximately 35 graduate students and postdoctoral fellows. The state-of-the-art structural engineering laboratories include a re-locatable, four-table array for large-scale system-level earthquake simulation experiments, while a fifth shake table and laminar soil box for soil-structure interaction is under construction.
This posting will close on October 15, 2018, and the intended start date for both positions is July 1, 2019.
For additional information and to submit an application, please access the job posting online by clicking here.
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Regional Chapter News
Attendees from all over the US as well as from Mexico, Japan, and South Korea gathered at San Diego State University’s (SDSU) campus for the One-Day Short Course on DEEPSOIL and the First Kenji Ishihara Colloquium Series on Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering. The One-Day Short Course was held on August 23, 2018 and provided attendees with hands-on instruction for using the software program DEEPSOIL (v7) for seismic site response analysis. The short course was led by Prof. Youssef Hashash of the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign and explained the development of the DEEPSOIL platform as well as the various analysis methods available within DEEPSOIL. Hands-on examples included seismic site response analysis using linear analysis, equivalent linear analysis, and nonlinear analysis with and without pore water pressure generation with Prof. Hashash available to guide attendees through these analyses.
The Kenji Ishihara Colloquium Series on Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering was held on August 24, 2018 and was the first of the series. The Colloquium focused on the topic of seismic settlements with presentations from twelve speakers from all over the US and Japan. Topics included numerical modeling for seismic settlements, unsaturated soil mechanics in the estimation of seismic compression, assessment of building settlements and tilt due to liquefaction, structural effects of permanent ground displacements, and ground stabilization and improvement method to mitigate seismic settlements. Speakers included Prof. Jonathan Bray (UC Berkeley), Prof. Kohji Tokimatsu (Tokyo Soil Research Co.), Prof. Youssef Hashash (UIUC), Prof. Scott M. Olson (UIUC), Prof. Susumu Yasuda (Tokyo Denki University), Craig Comartin (CDComartin, Inc.), Stephen Harris (SGH), Prof. Shideh Dashti (CU Boulder), Prof. John S. McCartney (UC San Diego), Dr. James R. Gingery (Hayward Baker), Garret Fountain (Tensar International), and Prof. Edward J. Cording (UIUC). After the Colloquium, attendees enjoyed a catered dinner at SDSU and had the chance to interact with the colloquium speakers and guests.
Both events were organized by EERI’s San Diego Regional Chapter with generous contributions from our sponsors which included the State of California Seismic Safety Commission, California Geological Survey, ASCE Geo-Institute, Tensar, Hayward Baker, and RMA Companies. We would like to gratefully acknowledge our sponsors, organizing committee, and our two Colloquium moderators; Anthony B. Court (SEAOC Fellow) and Dr. Jorge Meneses (RMA Companies). We already look forward to next year’s Second Colloquium Series which will build on the presentations given at these events and focus on seismic lateral displacements. In the meantime, please enjoy the photos from the events!Back to top >
Webinar Reminder! September 17, 2018
How Induced Earthquakes Are Making Us Rethink the Challenges of Earthquake Engineering
Monday, September 17, 2018
10:00 – 11:00 am PST
Speaker: Abbie Liel, Ph.D. (M.EERI,2009)
Register for the Webinar
This presentation examines the ongoing human-caused seismicity in Oklahoma, Kansas and other parts of the central U.S. from an earthquake engineering perspective. Key questions to be answered include: Are these earthquakes different from natural (tectonic) earthquakes in important ways for earthquake engineers? Are these earthquakes large enough to cause damage to buildings and infrastructure? What is the impact of these earthquakes on seismic hazard and risk?
Abbie Liel, Ph. D. (M.EERI,2009)
Abbie is an Associate Professor of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering at the University of Colorado, Boulder. She earned two undergraduate degrees from Princeton University, one in Civil Engineering and one from the Woodrow Wilson School of Public Policy, starting her interest in uniting engineering and public policy. She started her graduate studies in the United Kingdom on a Marshall Scholarship, where she received a M.Sc. in Civil Engineering and a M.Sc. in Building and Urban Design and Development. Abbie did her Ph.D. at Stanford University, under the guidance of Professor Gregory Deierlein (M.EERI, 1989), focusing on collapse risk of older non-ductile concrete frame structures. At the University of Colorado, Abbie has worked on problems related to seismic performance of concrete buildings, snow loads on structures, and flood damage in the 2013 Boulder, CO floods, and induced seismicity, and advised 13 doctoral students. She has been the recipient of Shah Family Innovation Prize from the Earthquake Engineering Research Institute, and recently received the Charles A. Hutchinson Memorial Teaching Award from the University of Colorado's College of Engineering.
EERI Annual Awards: Nominate/Apply Now
Nominations are due September 10, 2018 for:
The George W. Housner Medal
The Alfred E. Alquist Special Recognition Medal
EERI Honorary Membership
EERI Distinguished Lecture Award
The Bruce Bolt Medal
Outstanding Paper Award for Earthquake Spectra (2017, vol.33)
Nominations/Applications are due October 1, 2018 for:
2019 Younger Member Award
Awards will be presented at the 2019 EERI Annual Meeting in Vancouver, BC, Canada on March 5-8, 2019.
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Welcome New Members
Esengul Cavdar, Civil, Turkey
Chenna Arun Rajaram, The School of Civil Engineering in RGMCET, Structural, India
Aniket Naresh Tolani, Dr. Kelkar Designs Pvt. Ltd., Structural, India
Maryam Motamed, Geotechnical
Abdullah M. Almannaie, California State University, Northridge, Civil
Kelley Grabner, University of Illinois, Civil
Kelly Esmeralda Lopez, California State University, Northridge, Civil
Raguram Paramasundaram, California State University, Northridge, Mechanical
Sandy Ashraf Samir, Ain Shams University, Civil
Shakti Shrestha, University of Otago
Francesca Marie Urcia, Virginia Tech, Civil
News of the Profession
Seven (7) recent articles, stories, opinions, or reports from around the web.
‘Tourists’ Evacuated by Boat for First Time in Tokyo Earthquake Drill (The Japan Times) The Tokyo Metropolitan Government conducted a disaster drill based on a scenario in which a powerful earthquake strikes the capital. The exercise was based on a quake measuring upper 6, the second-highest on the Japanese seismic intensity scale, and was the first to involve the evacuation of foreign tourists by ship. Read more
Earthquake Swarm Lights up Indonesia (Temblor) Over the last 4 weeks an earthquake swarm, which has consisted of four M=6+ earthquakes, including two M=6.9 quakes, has rattled the Indonesian island of Lombok, just east of Bali. In total, approximately 500 people have died and nearly 500,000 people have been displaced. Read more
Artificial Intelligence Nails Predictions of Earthquake Aftershocks (Nature) A machine-learning study that analysed hundreds of thousands of earthquakes beat the standard method at predicting the location of aftershocks. Read more
In Quake-Prone California, Alarm at Scant Insurance Coverage (New York Times) Despite an aggressive advertising campaign by the state to promote earthquake insurance, only 13 percent of homeowners have it. And fewer than one out of 10 commercial buildings... Read more
New City Library’s Quake Resilience (Scoop) When the team behind Christchurch’s flagship 5-story library, named Tūranga, began mapping out how they would achieve a high level of earthquake resiliency, they turned to acknowledged expert, University of Canterbury Mechanical Engineer Associate Professor Geoffrey Rodgers (M.EERI,2010). Read more
New California Bridge Gets Sensors to Gather Earthquake Data (ABC News) A new bridge, which will stretch 8,800 feet (2,680 meters) over the Port of Long Beach, the second-busiest port in the U.S., is being built with about 75 seismic sensors that will measure the forces imparted on the span when one of several nearby faults set off an earthquake. Read more
Hired, Fired, Rehired (Nepali Times) Reappointed to the National Reconstruction Authority, Sushil Gyewali wants to devolve rebuilding to local governments.“All earthquake-destroyed private homes will be rebuilt in the remaining two years, or even sooner,” he promised. Read moreBack to top >